PKF South Africa https://cerbalancetafrica.ke/ High Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I (hs-cTnI)

Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is the major cause of death and disability worldwide with an increasing incidence. The risk of death is highest within the first few hours of AMI onset. Rapid identification of AMI is critical for the initiation of medical treatment and management. 

Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is the major cause of death and disability worldwide with an increasing incidence. The risk of death is highest within the first few hours of AMI onset. Rapid identification of AMI is critical for the initiation of medical treatment and management. Fortunately, most patients presenting at emergency clinics with chest pain do not have AMI.

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8/18/2022 12:00:00 PM https://cerbalancetafrica.ke/news/pathologists-corner/high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-i-hs-ctni/
Lipoprotein

Lipoprotein (a) also referred to as Lp (a) is structurally similar to LDL- C with the exception of the presence of apolipoprotein (a) or apo (a) moiety attached to its apo B component1. Apo(a) shares homology with the fibrin binding domain of plasminogen leading to impaired conversion to its active form plasmin. 

Lipoprotein (a) also referred to as Lp (a) is structurally similar to LDL- C with the exception of the presence of apolipoprotein (a) or apo (a) moiety attached to its apo B component1. Apo(a) shares homology with the fibrin binding domain of plasminogen leading to impaired conversion to its active form plasmin. In addition, Lp (a) is associated with infiammation through pathological interaction with monocytes and endothelial cells2.

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8/18/2022 12:00:00 PM https://cerbalancetafrica.ke/news/pathologists-corner/lipoprotein/
D – dimer

D dimer has been in use for almost three decades, as a screening tool for Venous thromboembolism (VTE)¹. It is one of many Fibrin degradation products (FDP) produced after a clot is degraded by the process of fibrinolysis. FDPs come in a variety of molecular weights.

D dimer has been in use for almost three decades, as a screening tool for Venous thromboembolism (VTE)¹. It is one of many Fibrin degradation products (FDP) produced after a clot is degraded by the process of fibrinolysis. FDPs come in a variety of molecular weights. However, unlike other FDPs that are formed following degradation of fibrinogen and fibrin, D – dimer is produced exclusively from cross-linked fibrin. D dimer is therefore indicative of clot degradation and not non-specific fibrinolysis2.

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1/1/0001 12:00:00 AM https://cerbalancetafrica.ke/news/pathologists-corner/d-dimer/
Help Avoid Anesthetic Complications

Thanks to increased client awareness and compliance, preanesthetic testing is not only practical and accepted, it is also expected. The results benefit everyone as they decrease client anxiety, improve anesthetic safety, establish baseline data and increase a practice’s financial health.

Run A Complete Blood Count On Every Preanesthetic Patient

Thanks to increased client awareness and compliance, preanesthetic testing is not only practical and accepted, it is also expected. The results benefit everyone as they decrease client anxiety, improve anesthetic safety, establish baseline data and increase a practice’s financial health.

Most practices offer or require a chemistry panel with electrolytes for a preanesthetic screen, but rather than run a complete blood count (CBC), they perform only a packed cell volume (PCV) for a hematology profile. A PCV can help determine if a patient is anemic, but it cannot provide information on whether or not platelets are adequate for surgery or if inflammation or a glucocorticoid influence (“stress”) is present. To maximize preanesthetic screening value, a CBC must include an accurate platelet count, a five-part white blood cell differential and an absolute reticulocyte count.

A CBC provides a broad overview of the general health status of a patient and should be performed on all patients undergoing preanesthetic screening since it may detect subclinical or early developing disease that might put the patient at risk during anesthesia.

Evaluation for potential red blood cell, white blood cell and platelet abnormalities should be performed prior to anesthesia for several important reasons.

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2/7/2023 12:00:00 PM https://cerbalancetafrica.ke/news/veterinary/help-avoid-anesthetic-complications/
Cytology of Spleen

Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the spleen may be helpful in the diagnostic work-up and development of a treatment plan for patients with suspected disease involving the spleen. As sensitive imaging procedures have become more widely available, the use of cytology for evaluation of abdominal organs has increased.

Summary

Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the spleen may be helpful in the diagnostic work-up and development of a treatment plan for patients with suspected disease involving the spleen. As sensitive imaging procedures have become more widely available, the use of cytology for evaluation of abdominal organs has increased. Guidance of needle placement by imaging can enhance the probability of collecting a diagnostic sample, especially from smaller masses or those that are difficult to palpate. Although sometimes diagnostic, it is important to remember that cytology is a screening tool that complements other clinical information. Only a small sample of tissue is evaluated, so it is difficult to assess the extent of involvement. Discordance between cytology and other clinical findings should be pursued by histopathology or other diagnostic techniques.

Sample collection

Indications for FNA of the spleen for cytologic evaluation include generalized splenomegaly, presence of a mass or nodular lesions, abnormal echogenicity, or suspicion of neoplasia or inflammation. Potential complications include hemorrhage and seeding of neoplastic cells along the needle tracts, but these are rare. Thrombocytopenia is viewed by some as a contraindication for a FNA of the spleen. Although screening patients for hemostatic abnormalities may minimize the risk of hemorrhage, abnormal test results do not predict excessive bleeding in all patients, and hemorrhage can occur even if screening results are normal. The animal is placed in lateral or dorsal recumbency, the area over the site is surgically prepared, and a 1-1.5 inch 21 or 22 gauge needle is used for sample collection. A non-aspiration technique may result in more cellular samples with less blood contamination, but an aspiration technique with a 6-12-ml syringe also can be used.

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2/7/2023 12:00:00 PM https://cerbalancetafrica.ke/news/veterinary/cytology-of-spleen/
Age Doesn’t Mean a Thing – Or Does It?

It is unfortunate that our patients and clients have a similarity, in that, pets, just like humans, are prone to agerelated diseases.

Successfully managing your senior patients

In some ways, pets are like people

It is unfortunate that our patients and clients have a similarity, in that, pets, just like humans, are prone to agerelated diseases.

These include periodontal disease, obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD), arthritis, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, diabetes mellitus, hepatic disease, heart disease and impaired hearing and vision.

In a recent, large retrospective study by Baneld Pet Hospital, an association was recognised between increasing pet age and disease.

The benefits of early recognition

Many diseases are preventable or more successfully treated when diagnosed as early as possible and monitored closely.

According to veterinary experts, “Early disease recognition can help improve the quality of life for all dogs and cats, but especially for older dogs and cats and their owners.”

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an excellent example of a disease that, when diagnosed and treated in its earliest stage, results in a signicantly increased lifespan and improved quality of life for both dogs and cats.

Despite well-established guidelines, however, most patients aren’t diagnosed until they have late-stage disease. This reduces the likelihood of the patient responding to treatment and carries a poor to guarded prognosis.

Late stage diagnoses also have a negative impact on the client experience.

Most pet owners are unaware that early renal disease, like many diseases, can be present without a pet appearing to be sick.

This is why it is important to initiate conversations about the importance of regular preventive care visits, including screening and diagnostic tests.

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2/7/2023 12:00:00 PM https://cerbalancetafrica.ke/news/veterinary/age-doesn-t-mean-a-thing/